Timeline of the Women's Suffrage Movement: 1984-Current Black, Democrat, Department, First, Female, Hispanic, Indian-American, Jewish, Latina, 19th-Amendment, Presidential, Republican, Secretary, State, Supreme-Court, Congress, Vote

Timeline of the Women's Suffrage Movement: 1984-Current [The editors of Americans All Maryland ] (January 1, 1984 - ?) Black, Democrat, Department, First, Female, Hispanic, Indian-American, Jewish, Latina, 19th-Amendment, Presidential, Republican, Secretary, State, Supreme-Court, Congress, Vote

The word “suffrage” means “voting as a right rather than a privilege,” and has been in the English language since the Middle Ages. Suffrages originally were prayers. Then the meaning was extended to requests for assistance, then the assistance provided by a supporting vote, and finally the vote itself. Therefore, in 1787 the Constitution used suffrage to mean “an inalienable right to vote.”

And the right to vote was what advocates of women’s equality sought. They used suffrage in the phrase “female suffrage” or simply by itself, with the understanding that suffrage referred to voting rights for half of the adult population that had been excluded. The goal of the suffrage movement was accomplished in 1920 with the 19th Amendment to the Constitution: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged ... on account of sex.” With that, the word suffrage was also retired. Since then, campaigns to extend the vote have simply called for “voting rights.”

The numbers in [bold brackets] identify the images in the photograph collection at the bottom of the page.

1984: First woman nominated as a vice-presidential candidate
     Former Vice President Walter Mondale, selected Geraldine Ferraro [88] as his running mate, but lost the election badly to Ronald Reagan and his vice-president George H.W. Bush. Ferraro’s candidacy, however, showed the public that a woman could campaign stride-for-stride for national office. It would not be until 24 years later, when Senator John McCain chose Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his running mate in 2008, that another woman would appear on a major party’s ticket. And in 2020, former vice president Joe Biden selected Senator Kamala Harris as his running mate. [https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/geraldine-ferraro-unprecedented-1984-campaign-vice-president-180975491]   

1984: 19th Amendment finally ratified
     Mississippi becomes the last state in the union to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. [https://www.nps.gov/subjects/womenshistory/19th-amendment-by-state.htm]

1993: First Jewish female Associate Supreme Court Justice
     Nominated by President Bill Clinton on June 14 to fill the seat vacated by retiring Justice Byron R. White, Ruth Bader Ginsberg [89]--known as the "Notorious RBG"--became the first female Jewish justice and the first Jewish justice to serve since the resignation of Justice Abe Fortas in 1969. The Senate confirmed her by a 96-3 vote, and she took her judicial oath on August 10. She ruled cautiously on precedent rather than pushing the Constitution towards her own vision. With the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, Ginsburg became the senior member of what was sometimes referred to as the court's "liberal wing". When the court split 5–4 along ideological lines and the liberal justices were in the minority, Ginsburg often took authorship of the dissenting opinion because of her seniority. She was a proponent of the liberal dissenters speaking "with one voice" and, where practicable, presenting a unified approach to which all the dissenting justices can agree.    [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg]

 2005: First Black female Secretary of State
     Condoleezza Rice [90], diplomat, political scientist, civil servant, and professor was the first African American to served as the U.S. Secretary of State, Her term ran from 2005 to 2009. Prior to that, she was selected in 2001 by President George W. Bush and became the nation's first African American to hold the position as the U.S. National Security Advisor. She held that office for 4 years. In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. [https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/rice-condoleezza]

2007: First female speaker of the House
     Nancy Pelosi [91], Congresswoman from California,  becomes the First female speaker of the House, making her the highest-ranking female elected official in U.S. history. She was first elected to Congress in 1987, following her father, Thomas D'Alesandro Jr., who served as a U.S. Representative from Maryland and Mayor of Baltimore, into politics. Pelosi lost the speakership in 2011 after the Republican Party won a majority in the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections. In the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats regained control of the House, and she was again elected speaker, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.[5[https://www.politico.com/story/2010/11/the-rise-and-fall-of-nancy-pelosi-044598]

2008: First female vice-presidential nominee for the Republican Party
     Sarah Palin [92] was selected as the vice-presidential candidate for John McCain in the 2008 election. Prior to that, she was a commentator, author, reality television personality and became the ninth governor of Alaska in 2006, the first female as well as the youngest, to hold that position. She was also the state's first governor to be born after the state achieved statehood in 1959. [https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the- fix/wp/2016/01/19/sarah-palin-cost-john-mccain-2-million-votes-in-2008]

2009: First Hispanic American to serve on the Supreme Court
     Sonia Sotomayor [93], the 111th U.S. Supreme Court Justice, became the third woman to serve on the Court as well as the first Hispanic. She was nominated by President Barack Obama on May 26 following the retirement of Justice David Souter, and has served since August 8, 2009. While on the court, she has supported the informal liberal bloc of justices when they divide along the commonly perceived ideological lines. During her tenure, she has been identified with concern for the rights of defendants, calls for reform of the criminal justice system, and making impassioned dissents on issues of race, gender and ethnic identity. [https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/background-judge-sonia-sotomayor]

2016: First female presidential nominee of a major U.S. party in 2016
     Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton [94] is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a U.S senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Clinton became the first woman to be nominated for president of the U.S by a major political party when she won the Democratic Party nomination in 2016. She was the first woman to win the popular vote in an American presidential election, but she lost to Donald Trump. [https://www.hillaryclinton.com]

2017: First Indian American to serve in a Cabinet-level position
     Nikki Haley [95],  a politician, diplomat, businesswoman, and author served as the 116th governor of South Carolina from 2011 to 2017. She became the first Indian American to attain a Cabinet-level position when President Trump selected her to serve as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations from 2017-18. In addition to becoming the first female governor of South Carolina, she was the first Indian-American to serve in the role, and the second Indian American governor in the country, after Bobby Jindal of Louisiana. [https://www.biography.com/political-figure/nikki-haley]