Background information is provided to put the Jim Crow laws in context and explain how minorities were treated prior to the Civil War. In a few cases, the dates of specific information also have been provided. In 1786, the state had prohibited blacks from entering because "sound public policy requires that importation be prohibited in order that white labor may be protected." Source In 1844, it also restricted access to the ballot box by denying the vote to people with criminal convictions the same year it restricted voting to white men, the first Northern state to do so. While many Northern states abolished slavery following the Civil War, New Jersey opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and was the last Northern state to abolish slavery. Following the Civil War, it refused to ratify the Reconstruction Amendments. Source
Between 1913 and 1948, 30 out of the then 48 states enforced anti-miscegenation laws, but not New Jersey. The state is today among the most diverse, urbanized, and densely populated in the Union. It is also now one of the five most racially segregated states in America . . . A slave society from its inception, it was the last state in the north to initiate gradual emancipation in 1804. Source is: Black New Jersey by Graham Russell Gao Hodges, Rutgers University Press, 2018, ISBN:0813595185.
The Jersey Shore was an economic and social laboratory for civil rights after slavery ended. Blacks working in hotels and restaurants frequented by whites were denied access to those same restaurants and hotels. Under the notion of separate but equal,Blackshad their own beaches and their own segregated neighborhoods in Atlantic City (the Northside) and Asbury Park (the West End). Source is: The Retreats of Reconstruction: Race, Leisure, and the Politics of Segregation at the New Jersey Shore, 1865-1920, David E. Goldberg (Fordham University Press).
The State suffers from racialized voter disenfranchisement, denying the vote to over 100,000 people in prison, on parole, or on probation, according to data in 2019. Almost half are Black, though Black people comprise just 15 percent of the State’s population. The racism of the criminal justice system is directly imported into the franchise. Source Generations of Black kids have experienced racism in the youth justice system. Source
Housing and the Racial Wealth Gap: The State also experienced racially restrictive covenants that prohibited Black people from buying, leasing, or occupying property based on race, and redlining, which targeted Black people who were refused housing loans. The geographic patterns of disparity between white and Black homeownership rates are not an accident; they are the artifact of a history of racial discrimination and segregation that the State needs to confront. Source
Racial Segregation: Racial segregation itself, born from the vestiges of slavery, pervades New Jersey. Its racial diversity and racial segregation, combined with its extreme wealth and punishing poverty, has created in its public classrooms some of the fiercest segregation by race, ethnicity, and income in this country. Nearly half of New Jersey’s Black and Latino students attend schools that are more than 90 percent nonwhite. Almost two-thirds go to schools that are more than 75 percent nonwhite. Source
Background information is provided to put the Jim Crow laws in context and explain how minorities were treated prior to the Civil War. In a few cases, the dates of specific information also have been provided. Background: In 1859, New Mexico, now a U.S. territory, was pressured by Texas into passing a slave code. Source
1915: Silver City opened its first segregated school in Chihuahua Hill. The mines of Grant County were also segregated, with Hispanics generally shut out of jobs above the level of laborers. They were also paid less than Anglos for the same jobs. Source
1920s: Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent. Source
1921: Passed a constitutional amendment “alien land law” to bar Asian immigrants from owning property. Source
1923: State law passed in 1923 and amended in 1925 allowed municipal or county boards of education to establish segregated schools when it was “for the best advantage and interest of the school.” It stipulated that classrooms and instruction for black and white students had to be equivalent. Source
1925: White residents of Southern states—especially Texas—began moving to New Mexico, which subsequently adopted Jim Crow laws in 1925, nearly 50 years after they were established to segregate all public facilities in former Confederate states. Source
1925: In Dona Ana County, racism was most visible in the school segregation that was imposed by Anglos of southern descent after the New Mexico Legislature gave local governments the option to separate the races in the classroom beginning this year. Source
1940s: The typical New Mexico city and town was segregated by law or by an accepted social contract. "The racial pecking order in Tucumcari," recalls a black resident in the 1940s, "included whites at the top, the Spanish people next (because they were able to go to school with whites) and then, at the bottom, were the "colored" people." Source
1949: A three-member team from Peabody College in Nashville described the state’s segregated schools as “forgotten and substandard” and largely in a “shameful condition.” Source
1950s: A restaurant in Silver City had a sign: “No Mexicans or Dogs Allowed.” A popular after-school hangout admitted no Mexican students. At the Hurley company store, Hispanics waited at the back of the line until all the Anglos were served first. At the Silco movie theater, Hispanics sat upstairs on hard wooden seats while Anglos sat downstairs on comfortable padded chairs. Source
Background information is provided to put the Jim Crow laws in context and explain how minorities were treated prior to the Civil War. In a few cases, the dates of specific information also have been provided. In the 1890s, Back people suffered from written and unwritten rules against racial mixing in marriage, public accommodations and housing. In 1821, the new State constitution effectively disenfranchised almost every black voter requiring that they prove that they owned at least two hundred fifty dollars' worth of property, a restriction not imposed on whites. Source Jim Crow segregation and racism had a strange and robust career outside of the South, especially in this supposed bastion of liberalism.. Citizens at every level of society gave it life: journalists at national newspapers, wealthy suburban homeowners, working-class renters, university bureaucrats, police commissioners, mayors, union leaders and criminal court judges. Source Between 1913 and 1948, 30 out of the then 48 states enforced anti-miscegenation laws. New York never enacted them.
1911: It enacted the Sullivan Law, which was to become the model for restricting the ownership and carrying of handguns. The Law introduced two criteria that were to become widely adopted, with some variation, in most states throughout the 1920s and early 1930s. Hand-guns could not be acquired without a permit issued only to persons who had both "good moral character" and "good cause" to carry a handgun. Source
1940s: The F.H.A. helped support the construction of Levittown, a suburb near New York City on the condition that no homes be sold to African Americans. Every home also had to have a clause in its deed prohibiting resale to black people. Source