The Civil War (1861-1865) has been called the Second American Revolution, the War of the Rebellion, the War between the States, the War for Southern Independence, the Rich Man's War and the Poor Man's Fight, the War to Save the Union, and after it was over, many in the South referred to it as "The Lost Cause." It was also called a struggle between national sovereignty and states' rights.
To achieve separation, a convention of delegates from six of the cotton-growing states (Texas was added later) met at Montgomery, Alabama, February 4, 1861, and established a government under the title of "The Confederate States of America." On March 21,1861, Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederacy declared: “The Confederacy's foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests upon the great truth, that the Negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and moral condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth."
The Civil War began when Southern troops attacked Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in April 1861. Although the military battles ended on April 9, 1865 after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Court House, the major issues that had started the war were never resolved.